Thursday, 25 February 2016

Market Research

The target audience I want this to appeal to is students, preferably GCSE to early A-Level

Research: How bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics

  • Most bacteria can be fought off through the use of antibiotics, however those few who are more resistant contain a mutation among its DNA, enabling it to fight off and pump out the antibiotic.
  • When the immune bacteria have fought off the antibiotic, the 'death' of the other bacteria gives them more room to populate and multiple, also know as natural selection. This new population of bacteria are now all immune to the antibiotic previously used.
  • The surviving bacteria uses the bodies resources to double in numbers every 20 minutes, and when the population becomes large enough it begins to attack the body.
  • Antibiotics either slow dow or kill bacteria
  • If the person infected begins to feel better and makes the decision to not complete the course of antibiotics, the more resistant bacteria within the body will begin to multiple as it has no threat to fight off and more room due to the antibiotic killing off the non resistant bacteria.
  • The person will soon become ill again and the previous antibiotic will become ineffective as the bacteria is now immune to it through its DNA mutations.
  • MRSA is one of the most difficult to treat with antibiotics as very few work, MRSA is given the nickname the super bug (along with many others) as a result of its wrong immunity.
  • The first antibiotic (penicillin) was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming, a discovery which many argue was by chance.

Bibliography:
  • Research taken from Cyd Worden, Head of A-Level Science and Physics teacher at Trinity School
  • BBC Bitesize http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/problems_in_environment/infectiousdiseaserev6.shtml 25/02/16

Character Influence


Visual Influence


Sunday, 14 February 2016

Psycho (1960)

Alfred Hitchcock's 'Psycho' created a new genre - the slasher - upon its release which led to the creation of films like Scream, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and Friday the 13th. Its known for its most iconic scene in the shower, where Marion Crane (Janet Leigh) meets her end. The film then continues to unravel leading to the finale where the audience discovers the mental stability behind the story which in many people's opinions, ruins the film completely by leaving no mystery as to why.

Fig 1

Hitchcock uses the camera in many different ways to capture the tension, the thrill and fear within the film. 'Hitchcock cuts disorientatingly to a bird's-eye view of the landing, and then, before we've had even a second to get our bearings, a figure darts into view from the right of the screen, knife raised. No matter how prepared you are, how many times you see it, it's almost impossible not to flinch.' (Monahan, M 2015) This angle gives the audience the feel that Milton Arbogast (Martin Balsam) is being preyed upon, in addition to this the camera then cuts to the p.o.v of Normans Mother as she watches him fall backwards down the stairs which involves the audience more in Milton's murder, this finishes off the feel of being preyed upon as the predator has caught its prey in one quick swoop like an owl, similar to those in Norman's hotel office. 'Norman's "parlor," where savage stuffed birds seem poised to swoop down and capture them as prey' (Ebert, 1998)


Fig 2

At no point in the infamous shower scene do the audience see the knife pierce Marion's skin, and despite the length of the scene and the prediction of how many stab wounds Marion may have accumulated, little blood is shown 'never shows the knife striking flesh. There are no wounds. There is blood, but not gallons of it. Hitchcock shot in black and white because he felt the audience could not stand so much blood in color' (Ebert, 1998)



Fig 3


Its clear to see how this film has influenced and affected the world of cinema when looking at films like Halloween and Scream despite their shots where you see knives and other similar weapons make contact with the target, they eerily follow the direction of the story in psycho - leading up to a revealing of a mental-illness/thoughts (like Norman Bates) for example in Scream. 



Bibliography:

  • Monahan, M 2015 'Psycho' : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/filmreviews/11025424/Psycho-review.html 14/02/15
  • Ebert, R 1998 'Psycho' : http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-psycho-1960 14/02/15
  • Ebert, R 1998 'Psycho' : http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-psycho-1960 14/02/15


Illustrations:

  • Fig 1: Poster : http://alternativemovieposters.com/portfolio_tags/psycho/ 14/02/15
  • Fig 2: Film Still : https://thehitchcockproject.wordpress.com/2010/11/20/week-46-psycho-1960/ 14/02/15
  • Fig 3: Film Still : https://iheartingrid.wordpress.com/tag/psycho/ 14/02/15

Jaws (1975)

If films were put in a hierarchy, 'Jaws' would undoubtedly be a film which is at the top, a well known blockbuster that changed films from its release. Director, Steven Spielberg successfully captured the audience and scared them with the films soundtrack and camera shots, and still to this day it has the capability to do so. 


Fig 1: Jaws poster

The film immediately establishes its killer and main focus of the film, its begins with the death of Chrissie (Susan Backline) as she tries to lure an intoxicated male into the ocean but due to his intoxication he gets no further than the beach. The camera then changes to a view beneath Chrissie, one that establishes that she's being watch, being preyed on, as the camera gets closer the tension builds as the score comes into play keeping us on the edge of our seats as we know the shark is there but Chrissie does not.

The camera shots and angles within this film really work on captivating the audience and creating tension, the camera doesn't properly give away the shark until towards the end of the film, making the audience sit on the edge of their seats wondering about this nature threatening the man on Amity Island. 'The shark is more talked about than seen, and seen more in terms of its actions than in the flesh.' (Ebert, 2000) Spielberg described it as a 'bomb under the table, but it does not explode' (Ebert, 2000) - making it an extremely effective thriller, keeping the audience on the edges of their seats. Spielberg carefully reveals the shark in different forms, in the tooth Hooper (Richard Dreyfuss) finds on the hole of the boat, in the book which Chief Brody briefly flicks through, the floating kegs from the boat. Spielberg through this method, changed cinema completely and created one of his most successful films yet.


Fig 2: The 'invisible shark'

The shark itself has been disputed by many critics as to what its purpose is. "There are no doubt supposed to be all sorts of levels of meanings in such an archetypal story" (Ebert, 1975). Male sexuality stands out the most within Spielberg's 'Jaws', apart from the establishing attack on Amity Island all other victims are male, all who are attack from below the waistline - Castration. 'The shark brings in its wake a generalized fear of sexual violation' (Biskind, 1975)



Fig 3: The shark attack Quint below the waist

Furthermore, Spielberg's 'Jaws' is a film which seems effortlessly capture its audience, a film which reformed cinema completely and a film that kept many people away from the ocean for a very long time.

Bibliography:


  • Ebert, R. (1975) 'Jaws' : http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/jaws-1975 14/02/15
  • Ebert, R. (2000) 'Jaws' : http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-jaws-1975 14/02/15
  • Ebert, R. (2000) 'Jaws' : http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-jaws-1975 14/02/15
  • Biskind, P. (1975) 'Jaws' : http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/onlinessays/JC09folder/Jaws.html 14/02/15


Illustrations


  • Fig 1: Poster : http://www.o-cinema.org/event/jaws/ 14/02/15
  • Fig 2: Film Still : http://jawsmovie.com/jaws/jaws-collectibles/
  • Fig3: Film Still : http://puzzledpagan.com/2015/09/13/the-suspenseful-masterpiece-that-is-jaws/